- The major source of the neutralising capacity of saliva is its bicarbonate content, but there is now evidence that gland bearing oesophageal mucosa can also secrete alkali, a phenomenon first documented in the opossum esophagus in vivo.
- Intraluminal neutralisation of acid occurs in part by swallowed saliva and previous studies have shown enhancement of salivary flow in response to dyspeptic symptoms caused by acid entering the lower esophagus.
- "Asbestos dust inhalation has been linked to increased risk of cancer of the lungs, esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, kidneys, pleura and peritoneum
- Propagated contractions, which are thought to be predominantly under voluntary control, were detected more often in the proximal oesophagus whereas non-propagated contractions prevailed in the mid and distal esophagus.
- Since the original description of a columnarised lower esophagus by Barrett in 1950 and Allison and Johnson in 1953 it has been recognised that this abnormal lining has a marked propensity to develop serious complications.
- Once acid has entered the lower esophagus peristaltic waves initiated within the body of the oesophagus sweep the bolus away into the stomach, but may still leave a juxtamucosal acidic environment in the lower oesophagus.